Anthropology Midterm

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Anthropology Midterm
  1. The study of the biological and cultural evolution and diversity of human beings, past and present
  2. Anthropology is a comparative
    discipline which seeks to
    • understand what makes
    • people different and what they all have in common.
  3. Some societies have no regulations surrounding sexual activity.
    A) True
    B) False
  4. Nowhere in the world have anthropologist documented same-sex marriages. In all human societies such unions are deemed inappropriate under any circumstances.
    A) True
    B) False
  5. A(n) _______________ is a closely examined and critically checked out explanation of observed reality.
  6. Cultural anthropology is the study of patterns of human behavior. These standards
    B. focus on humans as culture producing and re-producing creatures
  7. Anthropologists doing fieldwork typically involve themselves in many different experiences. They try to investigate not just one aspect of culture (such as the political system) but how all aspects relate to each other (for example, how the political system fits with economic institutions, religious beliefs, etc.). This approach is called the _______________perspective.
  8. In-depth descriptive studies of specific cultures are called _______________.
  9. An ethnologist can be described as someone who _______________.
    B. develops a theory of culture by comparing many specific cultures
  10. D. can also be applied to the study of Western industrialized societies
  11. According to Bronislaw Malinowski, the nature of an institution is determined by its
  12. A detailed description of a particular culture based on fieldwork is called
  13. The belief that one’s own way of life is superior to others is _______________.
  14. The process in which culture is transmitted from one generation to the next is called
    A.enculturation
    B.diffusion
    C.transmission
    D.acculturation
  15. The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture was made by _______________.
  16. The Garbage Project in Tucson demonstrated that what people say and what they do can differ dramatically. For instance, investigators found that
    D. the amount of beer consumed, according to empty cans in the trash, was far higher than people claimed
  17. No known human societies exist, or have existed, that do not exhibit culture.
    A.True
    B.False
  18. E. the study of humankind everywhere, throughout time
  19. B. cultural meanings assigned to the biological differences between the sexes
  20. Because of the objectivity of anthropological training, anthropologists are able to eliminate the biases that might affect their descriptions of culture in the field.
    A.True
    B. False
  21. The branch of anthropology that studies human languages is called
  22. Gender, in cultural anthropology, refers to cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between sexes.
    A.True
    B.False
  23. What type of descent is found associated with Trobriand society?
  24. Define Matrilineal Descent is traced exclusively through the_______line of acestry to establish group membership.
    A. Male
    B. Female
  25. ___________________ is the term used to refer to what an anthropologist does when they go to a place to observe a cultural activity first hand.
  26. What is the first step in doing ethnographic fieldwork?
    • D. choosing a research question
    • (It all begins with selecting a research site and a research problem or question)
  27. The most important anthropological research tool by far is participant observation.
    A.True
    B.False
  28. D. a population of individuals able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  29. The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world is called the
  30. The first members of the genus Homo first appeared around _______________ years ago. A.3.5 million
    B.4.5 million
    C.1.5 million
    D.2.5 million
  31. Extended on-location research to gather detailed information about a society’s culture is called
  32. The primary method in the anthropologist’s toolkit, regardless of the time period, has always been _______________.
  33. C. both quantitative and qualitative data
  34. B. a large brain
  35. National character studies were most popular during
  36. A tool that researchers rely on to learn about a culture by examining their behaviors and beliefs through social interaction is ________________________.
  37. Which anthropologist did a “re-study” of the Trobriand Islanders?
  38. By the late 1800s, which groups were sponsoring anthropologists’ expeditions to collect cultural artifacts?
  39. One of the first U.S. anthropologists to study acculturation was Margaret Mead in her 1932 fieldwork
  40. Qualitative data is data that is ___________________________________.
  41. When do paleoanthropologists believe that human culture began?
  42. _______________ are typically represented in the popular media as “cave men.”
  43. The australopithecine “Lucy” was discovered in _______________.
  44. The agents of enculturation _______________. A.vary, depending on the structure of the family into which a child is born
    B.are at first the members of the family into which the child is born
    C.are persons involved in transmitting culture to the next generation
    D.all of the above
  45. Human culture as we know it could have easily existed without language.
    A.True
    B.False
  46. Kinesics is a method for notating and analyzing _______________.
  47. From the Native American perspective the spirit of a human is superior to the spirit of any other thing.
    A.True
    B.False
  48. Standards that define normal behavior for any culture are determined by that culture itself. A.True
    B.False
  49. A system of communication based on symbols is called a _______________.
  50. All _______________, as systems of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules, are organized on the same basic plan.
  51. Studies of _______________ were developed during the 1930s and 1940s to explore the idea that basic personality traits were shared by most of the people in modern nations.
  52. Enculturation : Process whereby culture is passed on from one generation to the next.
  53. The (AAA) American Anthropologist Code of Ethics: Do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety, dignity, or privacy of the people with whom they work, conduct research, or perform other professional activities.
  54. The extent of regulations surrounding sexual activity from society to society
    • In some societies sexual intercourse during pregnancy is taboo, whereas in others it is looked upon positively as something that promotes fetus growth.
    • In several cultures same sex acts are not only accepted but even but even prescribed. Papua societies in New Guinea, male to male sexual acts are part of initiation rituals required for all boys to become respected adult men.
    • In a Taliban controlled village in Afghanistan, conservative mullahs (priest) found a young couple of guilty of adultery, were buried waist deep and stone to death. (Amnesty International 2010)
    • The technique of learning a people’s culture through direct participation in their everyday life over an extended period of time.
    • The most significant aspect of ethnographic research
    • A research method in which one learns about a group’s beliefs and behaviors through social participation and personal observation within the community, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended stay in the community.
  55. The encounter that prompted the birth of anthropology in the 19th century
    They hayday of colonialism when many Europeans anthropologist focused In the study of traditional peoples and their cultures in the colonies overseas.
  56. The human genome (the genetic design of a species with its complete set of DNA) Closest Primate Relatives-Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Gorilla, and Orangutan. Most DNA shared Chimpanzee 98.3%,
  57. The idea of “gender” in cultural anthropological studies
    Anthropologist use the term gender to refer to the cultural elaboration and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes. Sex is biologically determined, one's gender is socially constructed within the context of one's particular culture.
    • All members of a culture will hold a shared set of values, ideas, perceptions, and standards of behaviors
    • This does not mean that everyone within a culture will act and think the exact same way.
    • Culture cannot exist without society- an organized group of people who share a territory, language, and culture
    • There are no known human societies that do not exhibit culture
  58. Homo sapiens which are members of the animal order primates.
  59. variation among all living organisms. These are random changes in the genetic coding process
  60. Genes are the basic physical units of heredity that make up ?
    make up the physical and biological aspect of all living organisms.
    • China as 114 million migrant workers that form part of new residential patterns in ever growing numbers. People that left peasant villages and traveled to fast growing cities to work.
    • Many migrant workers work in factories and live in factory dormitories.
  61. Confused with the idea of progress, the notion that humans are moving forward to better, more advance stage in their developmental toward perfection. Not all changes turn out to be positive.
    • The study of the biological and cultural evolution and diversity of human beings, past and present.
    • A comparative discipline which seeks to understand what makes people different and what they all have in common
    • Studies human languages:
    • Description of a language the way a sentence is formed or a verb conjugated
    • History of languages - the way languages change over time.
    • The study of language in its social setting,
    • such as discourse – an extended speech act on a particular topic.
  62. The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture
    Came from British anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor. In 1871 he defined culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habitts acquired by man as a member of society.
    • in 1960 became the 1st woman faculty member in the anthropology department at the University of California, Berkeley.
    • Term studying up, called out anthropologist to focus on Western elites, government bureaucracies, global corporation, philanthropic, foundations, media empires and business clubs.
    • Quant: Statistical or measurable data.
    • Qual: Non-statistical information, such as personal life stories and customary beliefs and practices.
  63. Through women, Matrilineal System
    • Came into existance 2.5mya, Stone flakes and choppers are
    • the hallmark of early hominid culture. The emergence of these mark the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic, the first part of the Old Stone Age, from about 2.6 million years ago-200,000/ (250,000) years a
    • 1st to teach anthropology in the United States
    • Did his 1st ethnographic research among the Inuit (Eskimo) in the Artic Canada in 1883-84.
    • Professor in Columbia University in New York
    • As a Jewish immigrant he recognized the Dangers in of ethnocentrism
    • Biological Anthropology
    • Study great apes in the wild
    • Born in London
    • Chimpanzees ans primate conservation
  64. Homo habilis
    • The theory of natural selection was first formulated by a 19th century naturalist
    • In his theory, individuals with characteristics best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce with greater frequency than individuals without those characteristics
    • Priest study physics (Father of Genetics)
    • Experiment in plant Hybridisation was the 1st to formulate the basic laws of biological inheritance
    • Inheritance of each biological traits is determined by 'units' or 'factors' (later called genes' that are passed to descendents unchanged
  65. Potlatches often compel others in the society to also give away goods by hosting a public feast so that no one person accumulates more wealth than another
  66. Buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand
    • There are three main forms of reciprocity which one mode of distribution
    • Generalized - The value of what is given is not calculated and repayment is not specified
    • Balanced -A direct obligation to reciprocate in equal value for the relationship to continue
    • Negative - The giver tries to get the better of the deal.
    • is the form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated.
    • In societies with a surplus to support some sort of government, goods in the form of gifts, tribute, taxes, and the spoils of war are gathered into storehouses controlled by a chief or some other type of leader.
  67. An example of biological adaptation among the Aymara
    Adapt to high altitude with O2 pressure is far lower than most humans are biologically accustomed. (Hypoxia low level of oxygenation of the blood)
torrespeterytania
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Anthropology 102 Midterm
Mid Term Study Guide
  • Cultural anthropology. Social anthropology. One of the four fields of anthropology. The dominant form of anthropology in Canada. Incldues ethnography, ethnology, and ethnohistory. The study of human behaviour in contemporary cultures, which can be seen, experienced, and discussed, as well as the study of culture change.
  • Subscribe to posts. Anthropology is holistic science.what does this mean? Holism refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present.

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Anthropology Midterm

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Anthropology Midterm

Anthropology Midterm 2

Term
What are anthropology's sub-disciplines?
Definition
Cultural, archaeology, physical/biological, linguistic, and +1 applied
Term
Anthropology
Definition
The comparative study of human society and culture
Term
Cultural Anthropology
Definition
How culture is learned and used, how culture persists and changes, similarity and difference across culture, study of dynamics of particular cultures as a way to better understand humanity across time and space
Term
Archaeology
Definition
Study of the past through material remains, reconstruct human behavior using material remains, explanation and analysis of historical and prehistorical societies
Term
Physical/Biological Anthropology
Definition
Focus on the biocultural evolution of humans, human ancestors, relatives of humans, and how they bioculturally adapt to different environments and challenges, also studies human relatives
Term
Linguistic Anthropology
Definition
Study of languages past and present, study of how people us language in verbal and non-vebral ways, study of how languages vary in a society and across time, study how languages evolves/spread/become extinct
Term
Ethnocentrism
Definition
Using one's own society to judge and analyze other (prejudice)
Term
Holism
Definition
Combining human biology, history, and shared patterns of human behavior to make assumptions
Term
Edward Tylor
Definition
Theory of unilinear evolution, stating that societies moved in a linear motion from primitivism to savagery to civilization, we must all pass through those stages
Term
L. Henry Morgan
Definition
Simple to complex stages of development, agreed with Tylor's unilinear evolution theories
Term
Bronislaw Malinowski and A. R. Radcliffe Brown
Definition
Believed in functionalism, culture consists of parts that serve a function or a whole, focused on what people of a culture share in common (not concerned with history or change) interested in objective realism and kinship
Term
Franz Boaz
Definition
Historical particularism, believed that focus on history, details, inductive reasoning and argued for focus on specificity of cultures (ethnography)
Term
Claude Levi-Strauss
Definition
Structuralism, believed in focus oon deep knowledge/grammar, focus on universals (binary oppositions)
Term
Leslie White, Julian Steward, Marvin Harris
Definition
Neoevolutionism, believed in multilinear evolution, reworking of simple to complex ideas, removed prejudices, used ethnology and ethnography to reformulate old ideas, categorized culture area and types, specified influence of local environment on culture
Term
Imperial Anthropologists/First Field Workers
Definition
Franz Boaz and Bronislaw Malinowski
Term
Field Work
Definition
Select a problem or issue, find a location, develop key contacts, record all date over period of time
Term
Julian Steward
Definition
Cultural ecology, ecological functionalism, believed where an area is located determines how their economics function and what they produce
Term
Morton Fried
Definition
Three types of political organization model (egalitarian, rank, and state-stratified)
Term
Elman Service
Definition
Four types of political organization model (bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states)
Term
Diffusion Theory
Definition
Theory of how ideas and technology spread through culture
Term
3 Types of Resources
Definition
Tangible, human, and symbolic
Term
Political Universals
Definition
Public goods, self-serving, common good, basic problems
Term
Universals of Anthropology
Definition
All people form families and structure their relationships, communicate, dance, rituals, family
Term
Particulars of Anthropology
Definition
People have developed different ways of forming families and structuring relationships and culture
Term
Patrilocal/Matrilocal
Definition
Living with your mother or father's family on their land after you are married
Term
Neolocal
Definition
Living on your own after you are married
Term
Patrilineal/Matrilineal
Definition
Tracing your mother or father's line of descent
Term
Emic
Definition
Insider's point of view
Term
Etic
Definition
Outsider's perspective
Term
Ethnography
Definition
Detailed work of data from the field
Term
Reflexivity
Definition
Greater awareness of how we relate to and interact with other people and how we represent them
Term
Inductive/Deductive Reasoning
Definition
Deductive goes from generic to specific, inductive goes from specific to generic
Term
Dualistic Conceptual Continuum
Definition
Scale on which materialism/objectivism are on the left, culture is in the middle, and idealism/subjectivism are on the left
Term
6 Things About Culture
Definition
Culture is learned, culture depends upon language and symbols, culture is integrated, culture is shared, culture is adaptive, and culture changes
Term
Ways Culture is Shared
Definition
Migration, trade, war, conquest, inter-marriage, exploration
Term
Postmodern Turn
Definition
Peak of modernism, allowed no single superior vantage point in anthropology
Term
Positivism
Definition
The need to avoid biases/tainted research in the field and the beginning of long-term study
Term
Native Anthropology
Definition
A flux of colored people entering the field, allowed the benefits of studying those who are similar to you
Term
Feminist Turn
Definition
Flux of women in the field (now 60%), allowed women's roles in societies to be published, child rearing, etc.
Term
Linear Research Model
Definition
Similar to the scientific method of study
Term
Ethnographic Research Cycle
Definition
Circular research cycle, select a problem or issue, find a location, develop key contacts, collect data, study literature, develop questions, interpret results
Term
Formal Economics
Definition
Reflection of our own culture, understood as an isolated domain
Term
Substantive Economics
Definition
All peoples have unlimited wants but limited needs, decisions must be made to maximize the economy for specific cultures
Term
Artic
Definition
Snow and ice covered, permeable, life limited
Term
Desert
Definition
Various and limited flora and fauna, waterless zones, able to support life with irrigation
Term
Savannas/Plains
Definition
Flat, open spaces not suitable for cultivation due to weather unpredictability
Term
Tropics
Definition
Warm, shady areas, large ecosystems, dry wetlands have rich soil, wet tropics have depleted soil and uncontrollable vegetation
Term
Woodlands/Temperate
Definition
Most hospitable for human life, variable ecosystems, fresh water, fertile soil
Term
Mountainous
Definition
Vary in plant and animal life, challenge to keep soil from washing away
Term
Subsistence Strategies
Definition
Foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, industrialism
Term
Foraging
Definition
Adaptive strategy for nomadic peoples, low population density (6-8 MYA)
Term
Horticulture/Swidden Agriculture
Definition
Slash and burn techniques, alternative fields, semi-permanent lifestyles, tropical climates, human power only
Term
Pastoralism
Definition
Transhumance and nomadism
Term
Agriculture
Definition
Intensive agriculture uses domesticated animals/machine technology, promotes sedimentary living, population growth (10-12 KYA)
Term
Industrialism
Definition
Use of machines and not hmans for production, changes how humans related to their physical environment and each other (poverty, distribution by trade, and capitalism introduced) (300 YA)
Term
Maximalism v. Minimalism
Definition
Anthropology offers a maximalist view of politics, political scientists and economists offer a minimalistic approach
Term
Theoretical Frameworks of Political Anthropology
Definition
Struture-functionalism, process/processual, political evolution, political economy, and postmodern
Term
Structure-functionalism
Definition
From the 1950s-60s, focus on function and maintenance of politics and economics in society (focus on individual)
Term
Process/Processual
Definition
Focused on how individuals plan and achieve goals
Term
Political Evolution
Definition
Relationship between politics and economics relationship to each other through history on society
Term
Postmodern
Definition
Began to challenge established views of experts said to be 'truth', says all narratives must be evaluated
Term
Leader's Needs
Definition
Followers, benefactors, loyalists
Term
Followers
Definition
Bedrock of leadership, not close to leaders, leaders focus on balancing alienating versus appeasing followers
Term
Benefactors
Definition
Provide tangible resources to keep followers happy, leaders obligated to appease benefactors, benefactors in turn are closer to leaders
Term
Loyalists
Definition
Enduring support for leader out of moral commitment, don't need resources as much as followers do
Term
Types of Leaders
Definition
Episodic, village leaders, Big Men, chieftains, shamans, kings, politicians (status leaders or office holdres)
Term
Morton Fried's Three Types
Definition
Egalitarian, Rank, State-Stratified
Term
Egalitarian
Definition
Consists of bands and tribes, mode of production is foraging or Swidden slash and burn methods, bilateral, nomadic, flexible membership, low population density, and osogmous
Term
Rank
Definition
Consists of tribes and chiefdoms, mixed strategies of production, stratified, redistribution, low violence, and complex
Term
State-Stratified
Definition
Consists of governments and bureaucracy, mode of production is intensive agriculture and industrialism, hierarchal, monoply on violence, heterogenous
Term
Elman Service's Four Types
Definition
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States
Term
Challenges All Leaders Face
Definition
Building and maintaining support
Term
Dimensions of Stratification
Definition
Wealth, social class, power, status, social mobility, and ideology
Term
Functionalist Focus
Definition
How do societies function together and how do they not fall apart?
Term
Davis and Moore Thesis
Definition
Argues that stratification serves positive purposes, stratification rewards people with money and prestige and allocated people to positions with functional significance, believed full equality would lead to someone who does a poor job to get rewarded at the same rate as someone who does an outstanding job (capitalism)
Term
Karl Marx and Fredrick Ingles
Definition
Conflict focus, stratification is a problem, result from peoples different access to resources, only intensified by capitalism
Term
Max Vabor
Definition
Stratification is neither bad or good, about competition revolving around people competing on income/prestige/power/space
Term
Stratified Society
Definition
Permanent social and economic inequality, people can be denied access to basic resources needed to survive, societies have not always been stratified
Term
Ascribed vs. Achieved
Definition
If you are scribed, you are born into a social condition, if it is achieved, your efforts earn you your social state
Term
Ideology
Definition
Strongy held cultural belief with moral and political implications (central to stratification), people need explanations of why things are the way they are
Term
Dominant vs. Subversive
Definition
Dominant is used to maintain, rationalize and naturalize an existing order while subversive is used to challenge dominant ideologies by providing a counter prospective on a dominant ideology
Term
Engaged Anthropology
Definition
Anthropology that includes political action as a major goal of field work
Term
Collaborative Anthropology
Definition
Ethnography that gives priority to informants o the topic, methodology, and written results of research

Anthropology Midterm Exam Quizlet

ANTH45N MIDTERM REVIEW GUIDE Date of Exam: Friday, 9 October 2020 Format: 50 MC questions, Canvas, open 24 hours, 90 minutes to complete NO CLASS ON FRIDAY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS: “the purpose of anthropology is to make the world safe for human differences” – Ruth Benedict o Anthropology and it’s 4 fields o The study of humans, human diversity o Systematic and holistic study.